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Treatment of meniscus tear in the knee, its signs and diagnostic methods in Iran, Shiraz

A meniscus tear in the knee is a common injury that can significantly affect a person’s quality of life. People with this condition suffer from severe pain and swelling in the knee, which affects their ability to move and perform daily activities. It requires accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment to avoid long-term complications. In Iran, specifically in the cities of Shiraz, Tehran, Mashhad, and Yazd, there are a group of the best medical facilities and qualified personnel available to provide the latest diagnostic and treatment methods for this condition. Through advanced technologies and extensive experience, injured people can receive intensive care and effective treatment to ensure rapid recovery and return to daily activities with ease.

Table of contents

  1. Tear of the meniscus  in the knee.
  2. What are the symptoms of a meniscus tear?
  3. What is the cause of a tear in the meniscus of the knee and who is most affected by this problem?
  4. Learn about the types of meniscus tears in the knee.
  5. The correct way to diagnose a meniscus tear in the knee.
  6. Types of treatment for a meniscus tear that you should know.
  7. When should we see a doctor?
  8. Reference.

1. Tear of the meniscus in the knee

A meniscus tear is one of the most common knee injuries. The meniscus is a C-shaped piece of cartilage that acts as a cushion between the femur and tibia. There are two menisci in each knee joint. During activities that stress or rotate the knee joint, this cartilage can be damaged or torn. A sudden twisting motion can easily tear the meniscus in the knee.

You don’t have to be an athlete to tear a meniscus. Getting up quickly from the ground, especially if you’ve put all your weight on the knee beforehand, can also cause a meniscus tear. Basically, a meniscus tear causes pain, swelling, and stiffness in the knee area. You may also feel restricted in knee movement and have difficulty fully extending your knee.

Depending on the severity of your injury, treatment options can range from home treatments (such as rest and cold compresses) to outpatient surgery. Finally, it is the orthopedic specialist who can determine the appropriate type of treatment for you depending on the degree of meniscus tear.

2. What are the symptoms of a meniscus tear?

ما هي أعراض تمزق الغضروف الهلالي؟

When a meniscus tear occurs, you may hear it coming out of the knee joint. After that, you may feel the following symptoms:

  • Knee pain, especially when touching the affected area and twisting or rotating the knee.
  • Swelling, inflammation or stiffness of the knee.
  • Difficulty moving the knee or inability to move it through a full range of motion.
  • Feeling like the knee is unable to support and bear your weight.
  • Feeling of locking or cramping of the knee and inability to move completely.

If you experience these symptoms and they do not go away after a few days, be sure to contact your knee meniscus doctor. Below, you can see a picture of a torn meniscus in the knee.

3.What is the cause of a tear in the meniscus of the knee and who is most affected by this problem?

The meniscus can tear during activities that put too much stress on the knee due to forced or sudden rotation. Even lifting weights can cause damage. For this reason, many athletes are at risk for a meniscus tear.

The meniscus of the knee weakens with age, and its tear is more common in people over 30 years of age. Simple movements such as squatting (bringing the knee toward the abdomen) or walking can injure someone with a weak meniscus.

If you suffer from arthritis, you are more likely to suffer from a knee injury or a cartilage tear.  Arthritis is a common inflammatory disorder that causes pain and stiffness in the joints, often caused by aging and wear and tear.

When an elderly person suffers a meniscus tear, it is likely to be related more to weakening and thinning of the knee cartilage (degenerative changes in the knee) because they are more susceptible to tears in these conditions.

4. Learn about the types of meniscus tears in the knee

types of meniscus tears in the knee

Basically, a meniscus tear in the knee is a more serious injury than a meniscus strain. There are currently different types of knee meniscus tears, which differ from each other in terms of the severity of the tear and the amount of complications. Among the most important types of meniscus tears, the following can be mentioned:

  • Longitudinal tear of the meniscus of the knee, which is the most common type.
  • Tear of the transverse meniscus in the knee.
  • Tear of the oblique meniscus of the knee.
  • Radial tear in the meniscus of the knee.
  • Synthetic tear of the meniscus in the knee.

5.The correct way to diagnose a meniscus tear in the knee

Usually, after you share your symptoms with your knee meniscus surgeon, he or she will begin examining your knee and checking its range of motion. At the same time, your doctor will look for exactly where the meniscus is located along the joint.

Basically, the first test for a meniscus tear in the knee is the McMurray diagnostic test, which involves bending and then straightening and rotating the knee. You may hear slight noises while your doctor performs this test, which could be a sign of a meniscus tear.
The doctor sometimes does the following imaging tests to confirm a meniscus tear:

  • X-ray of the knee. Although this test does not show a cartilage tear.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This test uses a magnetic field to take several pictures of your knee and can help diagnose a meniscus tear by creating an image of the cartilage and ligaments. According to a study published in 2008, the accuracy of MRI in diagnosing a meniscus tear is about 77% compared to other tests.
  • Ultrasound imaging. In ultrasound, sound waves are used to take pictures of parts inside the body. This will determine if you have a loose piece of cartilage that may be stuck in your knee.
  • Arthroscopy. If your doctor can’t determine the cause of your knee pain using these tests, he or she may suggest arthroscopy to further examine your knee. If surgery is needed, your doctor will likely also use an arthroscope.

6.Types of meniscus tear treatment that you should know

6. أنواع علاج تمزق الغضروف المفصلي التي يجب أن تعرفها
  • Rest.
  • Apply ice compresses.

    The steps for this method are:

  • Rest your knee. Use crutches to reduce the weight of the knee joint. Avoid any activity that aggravates knee pain.
  • Place an ice pack or cold compress on your knee for 30 minutes every three or four hours.
  • Wrap your knee tightly with an elastic bandage to reduce inflammation.
  • Finally, elevate your knee to control swelling. You can use the wall as support.
  • Physical therapy (muscle strengthening)
    If you still feel pain, you should not put your full weight on the affected knee. Your doctor may recommend physical therapy to strengthen the muscles around your knee. Physical therapy can help reduce pain and increase knee mobility and stability. Your physical therapist may also use massage techniques to reduce swelling and stiffness in a locked knee.

  • Laparoscopic surgery
    If your meniscus tear or injury does not respond to the above treatments, your doctor may recommend arthroscopic surgery. Basically, the doctor will give you specific instructions on how to prepare for this surgery.
    Some of his instructions may include the following:

  • Learn how to use crutches before surgery:
    You will need blood tests, X-rays, MRI, and electrocardiogram (EKG).
    Do not eat or drink anything the night before the procedure.

  • During laparoscopic surgery
    The surgeon will first make a small incision in your knee. He then inserts the instrument and camera into the knee through this incision to repair the damaged meniscus. The whole process usually takes about an hour. After surgery, you can usually go home the same day. Although full recovery takes time, you can participate in physical therapy exercises a few days after surgery.

7. When should we see a doctor?

With accurate diagnosis and continued treatment, your knee can regain its normal movement and function. Although the healing rate of cartilage is somewhat slow due to its poor blood supply, some areas of the meniscus, such as the outer part, have more blood vessels and are more susceptible to healing.

So, if your knee is painful or swollen, or you can’t move your knee in the usual ways, see your doctor as soon as possible. If you do not have the necessary conditions to visit in person, get a consultation online, via phone and text messages from our skilled doctors in Iran in Shiraz and ask your problems and use their advice.

8. Reference:

Darlene Hertling and Randolph M.Kessler.Management of Common Musculoskeletal Disorders.Third Edition.ISBN 0-397-55150-9

Jackson JL, O’Malley PG, Kroenke K (2003). “Evaluation of acute knee pain in primary care”. Ann Intern Med. 139 (7): 575–88

Stratford, Paul W.; Binkley, Jill (1995). “A Review of the McMurray Test: Definition, Interpretation, and Clinical Usefulness”. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 22 (3): 116–120

حیدریان، کیکاوس، آسیب‌های زانو در ورزشکاران[تمزق غضروف الهلالي عند الریاضییون].انتشارات دانشگاه علوم پزشکی و خدمات بهداشتی درمانی ایران[منشورت جامعة الطب و خدمات الصحية والعلاجية في إيران]. چاپ اول[الطبعة الأولى]. شابک:۸-۴۵-۶۴۷۳-

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